# 函数、符号及特殊字符

## 声调

\bar{x} $\bar{x}$ \acute{\eta} $\acute{\eta}$ \check{\alpha} $\check{\alpha}$
\grave{\eta} $\grave{\eta}$ \breve{a} $\breve{a}$ \ddot{y} $\ddot{y}$
\dot{x} $\dot{x}$ \hat{\alpha} $\hat{\alpha}$ \tilde{\iota} $\tilde{\iota}$

## 函数

\sin\theta $\sin\!\theta$ \cos\theta $\cos\!\theta$ \tan\theta $\tan\!\theta$
\arcsin\frac{L}{r} $\arcsin\frac{L}{r}$ \arccos\frac{T}{r} $\arccos\frac{T}{r}$ \arctan\frac{L}{T} $\arctan\frac{L}{T}$
\sinh g $\sinh\!g$ \cosh h $\cosh\!h$ \tanh i $\tanh\!i$
\operatorname{sh}j $\operatorname{sh}j$ \operatorname{argsh}k $\operatorname{argsh}k$ \operatorname{ch}h $\operatorname{ch}h$
\operatorname{argch}l $\operatorname{argch}l$ \operatorname{th}i $\operatorname{th}i$ \operatorname{argth}m $\operatorname{argth}m$
k’(x)=\lim_{\Delta x\to 0}\frac{k(x)-k(x-\Delta x)}{\Deltax} $k'(x)=\lim_{\Delta x\to0}\!\frac{k(x)-k(x-\Delta x)}{\Delta x}$ \limsup S $\limsup S$ \liminf I $\liminf I$
\max H $\max\!H$ \min L $\min\!L$ \inf s $\inf s$
\sup t $\sup t$ \exp!t $\exp\!t$ \ln X $\ln\!X$
\lg X $\lg\!X$ \log X $\log\!X$ \log_\alpha X $\log_\alpha\!X$
\ker x $\ker x$ \deg x $\deg\!x$ \gcd(T,U,V,W,X) $\!\gcd(T,U,V,W,X)$
\Pr x $\Pr x$ \det x $\det\!x$ \hom x $\hom x$
\arg x $\arg x$ \dim x $\dim x$ \lim_{t\to n}T $\lim_{t\to n}T$

## 同余

\pmod{m} $\pmod{m}$ a \bmod b $a \bmod b$

## 微分

\nabla $\nabla$ \partial x $\partial x$ \mathrm{d}x $\mathrm{d}x$
\dot x $\dot x$ \ddot y $\ddot y$

## 集合

\forall $\forall$ \exists $\exists$ \empty $\empty$ \emptyset $\emptyset$ \varnothing $\varnothing$
\in $\in$ \ni $\ni$ \not\in $\not\in$ \notin $\notin$ \subset $\subset$
\subseteq $\subseteq$ \supset $\supset$ \supseteq $\supseteq$ \cap $\cap$ \bigcap $\bigcap$
\cup $\cup$ \bigcup $\bigcup$ \biguplus $\biguplus$ \sqsubset $\sqsubset$ \sqsubseteq $\sqsubseteq$
\sqsupset $\sqsupset$ \sqsupseteq $\sqsupseteq$ \sqcap $\sqcap$ \sqcup $\sqcup$ \bigsqcup $\bigsqcup$

## 逻辑

p $p$ \land $\land$ \wedge $\wedge$ \bigwedge $\bigwedge$
\bar{q} \to p $\bar{q} \to p$ \lor $\lor$ \vee $\vee$ \bigvee $\bigvee$
\lnot $\lnot$ \neg q $\neg q$ \setminus $\setminus$ \smallsetminus $\smallsetminus$

## 根号

\sqrt{3} $\sqrt{3}$ \sqrt[n]{3} $\sqrt[n]{3}$

## 关系符号

\Delta ABC\sim\Delta XYZ $\Delta ABC\sim\Delta XYZ\!$ \sqrt{3}\approx1.732050808\ldots $\sqrt{3}\approx1.732050808\ldots$
\simeq $\simeq$ \cong $\cong$
\dot= $\dot=$ \ggg $\ggg$
\gg $\gg$ \ge $\ge$
> $>\,$ \geqq $\geqq$
= $=\,$ \leq $\leq$
\leqq $\leqq$ < $<\,$
\ll $\ll$ \lll $\lll$
(x-y)^ 2\equiv(-x+y)^ 2\equiv x^ 2-2xy+y^2 $(x-y)^2\equiv(-x+y)^2\equiv x^ 2-2xy+y^ 2$ x\not\equiv N $x\not\equiv N$
x\ne A $x\ne A$ x\neq C $x\neq C$
t\propto v $t\propto v$ \pm $\pm$
\m $\mp$

## 箭头符号

\leftarrow $\leftarrow$ \gets $\gets$ \rightarrow $\rightarrow$
\to $\to$ \leftrightarrow $\leftrightarrow$ \longleftarrow $\longleftarrow$
\longrightarrow $\longrightarrow$ \mapsto $\mapsto$ \longmapsto $\longmapsto$
\hookrightarrow $\hookrightarrow$ \hookleftarrow $\hookleftarrow$ \nearrow $\nearrow$
\searrow $\searrow$ \swarrow $\swarrow$ \nwarrow $\nwarrow$
\uparrow $\uparrow$ \downarrow $\downarrow$ \updownarrow $\updownarrow$
\Leftarrow $\Leftarrow$ \Rightarrow $\Rightarrow$ \Leftrightarrow $\Leftrightarrow$
\Longleftarrow $\Longleftarrow$ \Longrightarrow $\Longrightarrow$ \Longleftrightarrow $\Longleftrightarrow$
\Uparrow $\Uparrow$ \Downarrow $\Downarrow$ \Updownarrow $\Updownarrow$
\rightharpoonup $\rightharpoonup$ \rightharpoondown $\rightharpoondown$ \leftharpoonup $\leftharpoonup$
\leftharpoondown $\leftharpoondown$ \upharpoonleft $\upharpoonleft$ \upharpoonright $\upharpoonright$
\downharpoonleft $\downharpoonleft$ \downharpoonright $\downharpoonright$

## 特殊符号

\eth $\eth$ % $\%$ \dagger $\dagger$ \ddagger $\ddagger$ \star $\star$
* $*$ \ldots $\ldots$ \smile $\smile$ \frown $\frown$ \wr $\wr$

\oplus $\oplus$ \bigoplus $\bigoplus$ \otimes $\otimes$
\bigotimes $\bigotimes$ \times $\times$ \cdot $\cdot$
\div $\div$ \circ $\circ$ \bullet $\bullet$
\bigodot $\bigodot$ \boxtimes $\boxtimes$ \boxplus $\boxplus$

\triangleleft $\triangleleft$ \triangleright $\triangleright$ \infty $\infty$ \bot $\bot$
\top $\top$ \vdash $\vdash$ \vDash $\vDash$ \Vdash $\Vdash$
\models $\models$ \lVert $\lVert$ \rVert $\rVert$

\imath $\imath$ \hbar $\hbar$ \ell $\ell$
\mho $\mho$ \Finv $\Finv$ \Re $\Re$
\Im $\Im$ \wp $\wp$ \complement $\complement$

\diamondsuit $\diamondsuit$ \heartsuit $\heartsuit$ \clubsuit $\clubsuit$ \spadesuit $\spadesuit$
\Game $\Game$ \flat $\flat$ \natural $\natural$ \sharp $\sharp$

## 字体-希腊字母

### 正体希腊字母

\Iota \Kappa \Lambda \Mu \Nu \Xi \Omicron \Pi
\Rho \Sigma \Tau \Upsilon \Phi \Chi \Psi\ Omega
$\Alpha\Beta\Gamma\Delta\Epsilon\Zeta\Eta\Theta$
$\Iota\Kappa\Lambda\Mu\Nu\Xi\Omicron\Pi$
$\Rho\Sigma\Tau\Upsilon\Phi\Chi\Psi\Omega$

\iota \kappa \varkappa \lambda \mu \nu \xi \omicron \pi
\rho \sigma \tau \upsilon \phi \chi \psi \omega
$\alpha\beta\gamma\delta\epsilon\zeta\eta\theta$
$\iota\kappa\varkappa\lambda\mu\nu\xi\omicron\pi$
$\rho\sigma\tau\upsilon\phi\chi\psi\omega$

\Theta \theta \vartheta
\Kappa \kappa \varkappa
\Pi \pi \varpi
\Rho \rho \varrho
\Sigma \sigma \varsigma
\Phi \phi \varphi
$\Epsilon\epsilon\varepsilon$
$\Theta\theta\vartheta$
$\Kappa\kappa\varkappa$
$\Pi\pi\varpi$
$\Rho\rho\varrho$
$\Sigma\sigma\varsigma$
$\Phi\phi\varphi$

### 粗体希腊字母

\boldsymbol{\Iota \Kappa \Lambda \Mu \Nu \Xi \Omicron \Pi}
\boldsymbol{\Rho \Sigma \Tau \Upsilon \Phi \Chi \Psi \Omega}
$\boldsymbol{\Alpha\Beta\Gamma\Delta\Epsilon\Zeta\Eta\Theta}$
$\boldsymbol{\Iota\Kappa\Lambda\Mu\Nu\Xi\Omicron\Pi}$
$\boldsymbol{\Rho\Sigma\Tau\Upsilon\Phi\Chi\Psi\Omega}$

\boldsymbol{\iota \kappa \lambda \mu \nu \xi \omicron \pi}
\boldsymbol{\rho \sigma \tau \upsilon \phi \chi \psi \omega}
$\boldsymbol{\alpha\beta\gamma\delta\epsilon\zeta\eta\theta}$
$\boldsymbol{\iota\kappa\lambda\mu\nu\xi\omicron\pi}$
$\boldsymbol{\rho\sigma\tau\upsilon\phi\chi\psi\omega}$

\boldsymbol{\Theta \theta \vartheta}
\boldsymbol{\Kappa \kappa \varkappa}
\boldsymbol{\Pi \pi \varpi}
\boldsymbol{\Rho \rho \varrho}
\boldsymbol{\Sigma \sigma \varsigma}
\boldsymbol{\Phi \phi \varphi}
$\boldsymbol{\Epsilon\epsilon\varepsilon}$
$\boldsymbol{\Theta\theta\vartheta}$
$\boldsymbol{\Kappa\kappa\varkappa}$
$\boldsymbol{\Pi\pi\varpi}$
$\boldsymbol{\Rho\rho\varrho}$
$\boldsymbol{\Sigma\sigma\varsigma}$
$\boldsymbol{\Phi\phi\varphi}$

### 黑板粗体

\mathbb{ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ} $\mathbb{ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ}$

### 正粗体

\mathbf{012…abc…ABC…} $\mathbf{0 \ 1 \ 2 \ 3 \ 4 \ 5 \ 6 \ 7 \ 8 \ 9}$
$\mathbf{a \ b \ c \ d \ e \ f \ g \ h \ i \ j \ k \ l \ m \ n \ o \ p \ q \ r \ s \ t \ u \ v \ w \ x \ y \ z}$
$\mathbf{A \ B \ C \ D \ E \ F \ G \ H \ I \ J \ K \ L \ M \ N \ O \ P \ Q \ R \ S \ T \ U \ V \ W \ X \ Y \ Z}$

### 斜粗体

\boldsymbol{012…abc…ABC…\alpha \beta\gamma…} $\boldsymbol{0 \ 1 \ 2 \ 3 \ 4 \ 5 \ 6 \ 7 \ 8 \ 9}$
$\boldsymbol{a \ b \ c \ d \ e \ f \ g \ h \ i \ j \ k \ l \ m \ n \ o \ p \ q \ r \ s \ t \ u \ v \ w \ x \ y \ z}$
$\boldsymbol{A \ B \ C \ D \ E \ F \ G \ H \ I \ J \ K \ L \ M \ N \ O \ P \ Q \ R \ S \ T \ U \ V \ W \ X \ Y \ Z}$
$\boldsymbol{\alpha \ \beta \ \gamma \ \delta \ \epsilon \ \zeta \ \eta \ \theta \ \iota \ \kappa \ \lambda \ \mu \ \nu \ \xi \ o \ \pi \ \rho \ \sigma \ \tau \ \upsilon \ \phi \ \chi \ \psi \ \omega}$

### 斜体数字

\mathit{0123456789} $\mathit{0 \ 1 \ 2 \ 3 \ 4 \ 5 \ 6 \ 7 \ 8 \ 9}$

### 罗马体

\mathrm{012…abc…ABC…}或\mbox{}或\operatorname{} $\mathrm{0 \ 1 \ 2 \ 3 \ 4 \ 5 \ 6 \ 7 \ 8 \ 9}$
$\mathrm{a \ b \ c \ d \ e \ f \ g \ h \ i \ j \ k \ l \ m \ n \ o \ p \ q \ r \ s \ t \ u \ v \ w \ x \ y \ z}$
$\mathrm{A \ B \ C \ D \ E \ F \ G \ H \ I \ J \ K \ L \ M \ N \ O \ P \ Q \ R \ S \ T \ U \ V \ W \ X \ Y \ Z}$

### 哥特体

\mathfrak{012…abc…ABC…} $\mathfrak{0 \ 1 \ 2 \ 3 \ 4 \ 5 \ 6 \ 7 \ 8 \ 9}$
$\mathfrak{a \ b \ c \ d \ e \ f \ g \ h \ i \ j \ k \ l \ m \ n \ o \ p \ q \ r \ s \ t \ u \ v \ w \ x \ y \ z}$
$\mathfrak{A \ B \ C \ D \ E \ F \ G \ H \ I \ J \ K \ L \ M \ N \ O \ P \ Q \ R \ S \ T \ U \ V \ W \ X \ Y \ Z}$

### 手写体

\mathcal{ABC…} $\mathcal{A \ B \ C \ D \ E \ F \ G \ H \ I \ J \ K \ L \ M \ N \ O \ P \ Q \ R \ S \ T \ U \ V \ W \ X \ Y \ Z}$

### 希伯来字母

\aleph \beth \gimel \daleth $\aleph\beth\gimel\daleth$

### 括号

( \frac{1}{2} ) $( \frac{1}{2} )$
\left( \frac{1}{2} \right) $\left ( \frac{1}{2} \right )$

\left \Uparrow \frac{a}{b} \right \Downarrow
\left \updownarrow \frac{a}{b} \right\Updownarrow
$\left \uparrow \frac{a}{b} \right \downarrow$
$\left \Uparrow \frac{a}{b} \right \Downarrow$
$\left \updownarrow \frac{a}{b} \right \Updownarrow$

\left \langle \psi \right |
$\left [ 0,1 \right )$
$\left \langle \psi \right \|$

\Bigg ( \bigg [ \Big {\big\langle \left | \| \frac{a}{b} \| \right | \big \rangle\Big}\bigg ] \Bigg )

### 空格

TEX能够自动处理大多数的空格，但是有时候需要自己来控制。

2个quad空格 \alpha\qquad\beta $\alpha\qquad\beta$ $2m$
quad空格 \alpha\quad\beta $\alpha\quad\beta$ $m$

### 颜色

＊注︰输入时第一个字母必需以大写输入，如\color{OliveGreen}。例如：

{\color{Blue}x^2}+{\color{Brown}2x} -{\color{OliveGreen}1} ${\color{Blue}x^2}+{\color{Brown}2x} -{\color{OliveGreen}1}$
x_{\color{Maroon}1,2}=\frac{-b\pm\sqrt{{\color{Maroon}b^2-4ac}}}{2a} $x_{\color{Maroon}1,2}=\frac{-b\pm\sqrt{{\color{Maroon}b^2-4ac}}}{2a}$

### 小型数学公式

\begin{smallmatrix}…\end{smallmatrix}

{{Smallmath|f= f(x)=5+\frac{1}{5} }}