RabbitMQ精讲3:Exchange交换机类型-direct、topic、fanout

目录

前言

1. Exchange概念

2. 交换机属性

3. Direct Exchange(直连)

3.1 Direct Exchange(直连)代码演示

生产端:

消费端:

queueDeclare 说明 

测试结果:

4. Topic Exchange

4.1 Topic Exchange代码演示

Topic Exchange生产端:

Topic Exchange消费端:

Topic Exchange测试结果:

5. Fanout Exchange

5.1 Fanout Exchange代码演示

Fanout Exchange生产端:

Fanout Exchange消费端:

6. Exchange交换机其他属性

6.1 Bingding —— 绑定

6.2 Queue——消息队列

6.3 Message——消息

6.4 其他属性

6.5 Virtual Host虚拟主机


前言

来了解RabbitMQ一个重要的概念:Exchange交换机

1. Exchange概念

Exchange:接收消息,并根据路由键转发消息所绑定的队列。

Exchange
  • 蓝色框:客户端发送消息至交换机,通过路由键路由至指定的队列。
  • 黄色框:交换机和队列通过路由键有一个绑定的关系。
  • 绿色框:消费端通过监听队列来接收消息。

2. 交换机属性

交换机属性
  • Name:交换机名称
  • Type:交换机类型——direct、topic、fanout、headers、sharding(此篇不讲)
  • Durability:是否需要持久化,true为持久化
交换机属性
  • Auto Delete:当最后一个绑定到Exchange上的队列删除后,自动删除该Exchange
  • Internal:当前Exchange是否用于RabbitMQ内部使用,默认为false
  • Arguments:扩展参数,用于扩展AMQP协议自定制化使用

3. Direct Exchange(直连)

Direct Exchange(直连)
  • 所有发送到Direct Exchange的消息被转发到RouteKey中指定的Queue
  • 注意:Direct模式可以使用RabbitMQ自带的Exchange:default Exchange,所以不需要将Exchange进行任何绑定(binding)操作,消息传递时,RouteKey必须完全匹配才会被队列接收,否则该消息会被抛弃。
Direct Exchange(直连)
  • 重点:routing key与队列queues 的key保持一致,即可以路由到对应的queue中。

3.1 Direct Exchange(直连)代码演示

我们来看下大概步骤:

  • ConnectionFacorty:获取连接工厂
  • Connection:一个连接
  • Channel:数据通信信道,可发送和接收消息
  • Queue:具体的消息存储队列
  • Producer & Consumer 生产者和消费者
    • 这个连接工厂需要配置一些相应的信息,例如: RabbitMQ节点的地址,端口号,VirtualHost等等。
  • Channel是我们RabbitMQ所有消息进行交互的关键。

生产端:

import com.rabbitmq.client.Channel;
import com.rabbitmq.client.Connection;
import com.rabbitmq.client.ConnectionFactory;

public class Producer4DirectExchange {

	
	public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
		
		//1 创建ConnectionFactory
		ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = new ConnectionFactory();
		connectionFactory.setHost("192.168.11.76");
		connectionFactory.setPort(5672);
		connectionFactory.setVirtualHost("/");
		
		//2 创建Connection
		Connection connection = connectionFactory.newConnection();
		//3 创建Channel
		Channel channel = connection.createChannel();  
		//4 声明
		String exchangeName = "test_direct_exchange";
		String routingKey = "test.direct111";
		//5 发送
		
		String msg = "Hello World RabbitMQ 4  Direct Exchange Message 111 ... ";
		channel.basicPublish(exchangeName, routingKey , null , msg.getBytes()); 		
		
	}
	
}

消费端:

import com.rabbitmq.client.Channel;
import com.rabbitmq.client.Connection;
import com.rabbitmq.client.ConnectionFactory;
import com.rabbitmq.client.QueueingConsumer;
import com.rabbitmq.client.QueueingConsumer.Delivery;

public class Consumer4DirectExchange {

	public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
		
		
        ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = new ConnectionFactory() ;  
        
        connectionFactory.setHost("192.168.11.76");
        connectionFactory.setPort(5672);
		connectionFactory.setVirtualHost("/");
		
        connectionFactory.setAutomaticRecoveryEnabled(true);
        connectionFactory.setNetworkRecoveryInterval(3000);
        Connection connection = connectionFactory.newConnection();
        
        Channel channel = connection.createChannel();  
		//4 声明
		String exchangeName = "test_direct_exchange";
		String exchangeType = "direct";
		String queueName = "test_direct_queue";
		String routingKey = "test.direct";
		
		//表示声明了一个交换机
		channel.exchangeDeclare(exchangeName, exchangeType, true, false, false, null);
		//表示声明了一个队列
		channel.queueDeclare(queueName, false, false, false, null);
		//建立一个绑定关系:
		channel.queueBind(queueName, exchangeName, routingKey);
		
        //durable 是否持久化消息
        QueueingConsumer consumer = new QueueingConsumer(channel);
        //参数:队列名称、是否自动ACK、Consumer
        channel.basicConsume(queueName, true, consumer);  
        //循环获取消息  
        while(true){  
            //获取消息,如果没有消息,这一步将会一直阻塞  
            Delivery delivery = consumer.nextDelivery();  
            String msg = new String(delivery.getBody());    
            System.out.println("收到消息:" + msg);  
        } 
	}
}

queueDeclare 说明 

channel.queueDeclare(queueName, true, false, false, null);
  • 第一个参数:queuename:队列的名称
  • 第二个参数:durable 是否持久化。true消息会持久化到本地,保证重启服务后消息不会丢失
  • 第三个参数:exclusive :表示独占方式,设置为true 在某些情景下有必要,例如:顺序消费。表示只有一个channel可以去监听,其他channel都不能够监听。目的就是为了保证顺序消费。
  • 第四个参数:autoDelete:队列如果与Exchange未绑定,则自动删除
  • 第五个参数:arguments:扩展参数

测试结果:

注意需要routingKey保持一致。可以自己尝试修改routingkey,是否能收到消息。

4. Topic Exchange

Topic Exchange
  • 所有发送到Topic Exchange的消息被转发到所有管线RouteKey中指定Topic的Queue上
  • Exchange将RouteKey和某Topic进行模糊匹配,此时队列需要绑定一个Topic
Topic Exchange
Topic Exchange

在一堆消息中,每个不同的队列只关心自己需要的消息。

4.1 Topic Exchange代码演示

Topic Exchange生产端:

import com.rabbitmq.client.Channel;
import com.rabbitmq.client.Connection;
import com.rabbitmq.client.ConnectionFactory;

public class Producer4TopicExchange {

	
	public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
		
		//1 创建ConnectionFactory
		ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = new ConnectionFactory();
		connectionFactory.setHost("192.168.11.76");
		connectionFactory.setPort(5672);
		connectionFactory.setVirtualHost("/");
		
		//2 创建Connection
		Connection connection = connectionFactory.newConnection();
		//3 创建Channel
		Channel channel = connection.createChannel();  
		//4 声明
		String exchangeName = "test_topic_exchange";
		String routingKey1 = "user.save";
		String routingKey2 = "user.update";
		String routingKey3 = "user.delete.abc";
		//5 发送
		
		String msg = "Hello World RabbitMQ 4 Topic Exchange Message ...";
		channel.basicPublish(exchangeName, routingKey1 , null , msg.getBytes()); 
		channel.basicPublish(exchangeName, routingKey2 , null , msg.getBytes()); 	
		channel.basicPublish(exchangeName, routingKey3 , null , msg.getBytes()); 
		channel.close();  
        connection.close();  
	}
	
}

Topic Exchange消费端:

import com.rabbitmq.client.Channel;
import com.rabbitmq.client.Connection;
import com.rabbitmq.client.ConnectionFactory;
import com.rabbitmq.client.QueueingConsumer;
import com.rabbitmq.client.QueueingConsumer.Delivery;

public class Consumer4TopicExchange {

	public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
		
		
        ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = new ConnectionFactory() ;  
        
        connectionFactory.setHost("192.168.11.76");
        connectionFactory.setPort(5672);
		connectionFactory.setVirtualHost("/");
		
        connectionFactory.setAutomaticRecoveryEnabled(true);
        connectionFactory.setNetworkRecoveryInterval(3000);
        Connection connection = connectionFactory.newConnection();
        
        Channel channel = connection.createChannel();  
		//4 声明
		String exchangeName = "test_topic_exchange";
		String exchangeType = "topic";
		String queueName = "test_topic_queue";
		//String routingKey = "user.*";
		String routingKey = "user.*";
		// 1 声明交换机 
		channel.exchangeDeclare(exchangeName, exchangeType, true, false, false, null);
		// 2 声明队列
		channel.queueDeclare(queueName, false, false, false, null);
		// 3 建立交换机和队列的绑定关系:
		channel.queueBind(queueName, exchangeName, routingKey);
		
        //durable 是否持久化消息
        QueueingConsumer consumer = new QueueingConsumer(channel);
        //参数:队列名称、是否自动ACK、Consumer
        channel.basicConsume(queueName, true, consumer);  
        //循环获取消息  
        while(true){  
            //获取消息,如果没有消息,这一步将会一直阻塞  
            Delivery delivery = consumer.nextDelivery();  
            String msg = new String(delivery.getBody());    
            System.out.println("收到消息:" + msg);  
        } 
	}
}

Topic Exchange测试结果:

注意一个问题:需要进行解绑

5. Fanout Exchange

Fanout Exchange
  • 不处理路由键,只需要简单的将队里绑定到交换机上
  • 发送到交换机的消息都会被转发到与该交换机绑定的所有队列上
  • Fanout交换机转发消息是最快的

5.1 Fanout Exchange代码演示

Fanout Exchange生产端:

import com.rabbitmq.client.Channel;
import com.rabbitmq.client.Connection;
import com.rabbitmq.client.ConnectionFactory;

public class Producer4FanoutExchange {

	
	public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
		
		//1 创建ConnectionFactory
		ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = new ConnectionFactory();
		connectionFactory.setHost("192.168.11.76");
		connectionFactory.setPort(5672);
		connectionFactory.setVirtualHost("/");
		
		//2 创建Connection
		Connection connection = connectionFactory.newConnection();
		//3 创建Channel
		Channel channel = connection.createChannel();  
		//4 声明
		String exchangeName = "test_fanout_exchange";
		//5 发送
		for(int i = 0; i < 10; i ++) {
			String msg = "Hello World RabbitMQ 4 FANOUT Exchange Message ...";
			channel.basicPublish(exchangeName, "", null , msg.getBytes()); 			
		}
		channel.close();  
        connection.close();  
	}
	
}

Fanout Exchange消费端:

import com.rabbitmq.client.Channel;
import com.rabbitmq.client.Connection;
import com.rabbitmq.client.ConnectionFactory;
import com.rabbitmq.client.QueueingConsumer;
import com.rabbitmq.client.QueueingConsumer.Delivery;

public class Consumer4FanoutExchange {

	public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
		
        ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = new ConnectionFactory() ;  
        
        connectionFactory.setHost("192.168.11.76");
        connectionFactory.setPort(5672);
		connectionFactory.setVirtualHost("/");
		
        connectionFactory.setAutomaticRecoveryEnabled(true);
        connectionFactory.setNetworkRecoveryInterval(3000);
        Connection connection = connectionFactory.newConnection();
        
        Channel channel = connection.createChannel();  
		//4 声明
		String exchangeName = "test_fanout_exchange";
		String exchangeType = "fanout";
		String queueName = "test_fanout_queue";
		String routingKey = "";	//不设置路由键
		channel.exchangeDeclare(exchangeName, exchangeType, true, false, false, null);
		channel.queueDeclare(queueName, false, false, false, null);
		channel.queueBind(queueName, exchangeName, routingKey);
		
        //durable 是否持久化消息
        QueueingConsumer consumer = new QueueingConsumer(channel);
        //参数:队列名称、是否自动ACK、Consumer
        channel.basicConsume(queueName, true, consumer); 
        //循环获取消息  
        while(true){  
            //获取消息,如果没有消息,这一步将会一直阻塞  
            Delivery delivery = consumer.nextDelivery();  
            String msg = new String(delivery.getBody());    
            System.out.println("收到消息:" + msg);  
        } 
	}
}

6. Exchange交换机其他属性

6.1 Bingding —— 绑定

标题
  • Exchange和Exchange、Queue之间的连接关系
  • Bingding可以包含RoutingKey或者参数

6.2 Queue——消息队列

Queue——消息队列
  • 消息队列,实际存储消息数据
  • Durability:是否持久化,Durable:是 ,Transient:否
  • Auto delete:如选yes,代表当最后一个监听被移除之后,该Queue会自动被删除。

6.3 Message——消息

Message——消息
  • 服务器与应用程序之间传送的数据
  • 本质上就是一段数据,由Properties和Payload(Body)组成
  • 常用属性:delivery mode、headers(自定义属性)

6.4 其他属性

  • content_type、content_encoding、priority
  • correlation_id、reply_to、expiration、message_id
  • timestamp、type、user_id、app_id、cluster_id

6.5 Virtual Host虚拟主机

Virtual Host虚拟主机
  • 虚拟地址,用于进行逻辑隔离,最上层的消息路由
  • 一个Virtual Host里面可以有若干个Exchange和Queue
  • 同一个Virtual Host里面不能有相同名称的Exchange或Queue
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