[深度学习] 吴恩达深度学习公开课第五课 序列模型第一周 一步一步实现循环神经网络 作业一答案

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表示这个东西有点头疼,下面是代码

import numpy as np
from rnn_utils import *

# GRADED FUNCTION: rnn_cell_forward

def rnn_cell_forward(xt, a_prev, parameters):
    """
    Implements a single forward step of the RNN-cell as described in Figure (2)

    Arguments:
    xt -- your input data at timestep "t", numpy array of shape (n_x, m).
    a_prev -- Hidden state at timestep "t-1", numpy array of shape (n_a, m)
    parameters -- python dictionary containing:
                        Wax -- Weight matrix multiplying the input, numpy array of shape (n_a, n_x)
                        Waa -- Weight matrix multiplying the hidden state, numpy array of shape (n_a, n_a)
                        Wya -- Weight matrix relating the hidden-state to the output, numpy array of shape (n_y, n_a)
                        ba --  Bias, numpy array of shape (n_a, 1)
                        by -- Bias relating the hidden-state to the output, numpy array of shape (n_y, 1)
    Returns:
    a_next -- next hidden state, of shape (n_a, m)
    yt_pred -- prediction at timestep "t", numpy array of shape (n_y, m)
    cache -- tuple of values needed for the backward pass, contains (a_next, a_prev, xt, parameters)
    """
    
    # Retrieve parameters from "parameters"
    Wax = parameters["Wax"]
    Waa = parameters["Waa"]
    Wya = parameters["Wya"]
    ba = parameters["ba"]
    by = parameters["by"]
    
    ### START CODE HERE ### (≈2 lines)
    # compute next activation state using the formula given above
    a_next = np.tanh(np.dot(Waa,a_prev) + np.dot(Wax,xt) + ba)
    # compute output of the current cell using the formula given above
    yt_pred = softmax(np.dot(Wya,a_next) + by)   
    ### END CODE HERE ###
    
    # store values you need for backward propagation in cache
    cache = (a_next, a_prev, xt, parameters)
    
    return a_next, yt_pred, cache



# GRADED FUNCTION: rnn_forward

def rnn_forward(x, a0, parameters):
    """
    Implement the forward propagation of the recurrent neural network described in Figure (3).

    Arguments:
    x -- Input data for every time-step, of shape (n_x, m, T_x).
    a0 -- Initial hidden state, of shape (n_a, m)
    parameters -- python dictionary containing:
                        Waa -- Weight matrix multiplying the hidden state, numpy array of shape (n_a, n_a)
                        Wax -- Weight matrix multiplying the input, numpy array of shape (n_a, n_x)
                        Wya -- Weight matrix relating the hidden-state to the output, numpy array of shape (n_y, n_a)
                        ba --  Bias numpy array of shape (n_a, 1)
                        by -- Bias relating the hidden-state to the output, numpy array of shape (n_y, 1)

    Returns:
    a -- Hidden states for every time-step, numpy array of shape (n_a, m, T_x)
    y_pred -- Predictions for every time-step, numpy array of shape (n_y, m, T_x)
    caches -- tuple of values needed for the backward pass, contains (list of caches, x)
    """
    
    # Initialize "caches" which will contain the list of all caches
    caches = []
    
    # Retrieve dimensions from shapes of x and parameters["Wya"]
    n_x, m, T_x = x.shape
    n_y, n_a = parameters["Wya"].shape
    
    ### START CODE HERE ###
    
    
    # initialize "a" and "y" with zeros (≈2 lines)
    a = np.zeros((n_a,m,T_x))
    y_pred = np.zeros((n_y,m,T_x))
    
    # Initialize a_next (≈1 line)
    a_next = a0
    
    # loop over all time-steps
    for t in range(T_x):
        # Update next hidden state, compute the prediction, get the cache (≈1 line)
        a_next, yt_pred, cache = rnn_cell_forward(x[:,:,t],a_next,parameters)
        # Save the value of the new "next" hidden state in a (≈1 line)
        a[:,:,t] = a_next
        # Save the value of the prediction in y (≈1 line)
        y_pred[:,:,t] = yt_pred
        # Append "cache" to "caches" (≈1 line)
        caches.append(cache)
        
    ### END CODE HERE ###
    
    # store values needed for backward propagation in cache
    caches = (caches, x)
    
    return a, y_pred, caches



# GRADED FUNCTION: lstm_cell_forward

def lstm_cell_forward(xt, a_prev, c_prev, parameters):
    """
    Implement a single forward step of the LSTM-cell as described in Figure (4)

    Arguments:
    xt -- your input data at timestep "t", numpy array of shape (n_x, m).
    a_prev -- Hidden state at timestep "t-1", numpy array of shape (n_a, m)
    c_prev -- Memory state at timestep "t-1", numpy array of shape (n_a, m)
    parameters -- python dictionary containing:
                        Wf -- Weight matrix of the forget gate, numpy array of shape (n_a, n_a + n_x)
                        bf -- Bias of the forget gate, numpy array of shape (n_a, 1)
                        Wi -- Weight matrix of the update gate, numpy array of shape (n_a, n_a + n_x)
                        bi -- Bias of the update gate, numpy array of shape (n_a, 1)
                        Wc -- Weight matrix of the first "tanh", numpy array of shape (n_a, n_a + n_x)
                        bc --  Bias of the first "tanh", numpy array of shape (n_a, 1)
                        Wo -- Weight matrix of the output gate, numpy array of shape (n_a, n_a + n_x)
                        bo --  Bias of the output gate, numpy array of shape (n_a, 1)
                        Wy -- Weight matrix relating the hidden-state to the output, numpy array of shape (n_y, n_a)
                        by -- Bias relating the hidden-state to the output, numpy array of shape (n_y, 1)
                        
    Returns:
    a_next -- next hidden state, of shape (n_a, m)
    c_next -- next memory state, of shape (n_a, m)
    yt_pred -- prediction at timestep "t", numpy array of shape (n_y, m)
    cache -- tuple of values needed for the backward pass, contains (a_next, c_next, a_prev, c_prev, xt, parameters)
    
    Note: ft/it/ot stand for the forget/update/output gates, cct stands for the candidate value (c tilde),
          c stands for the memory value
    """

    # Retrieve parameters from "parameters"
    Wf = parameters["Wf"]
    bf = parameters["bf"]
    Wi = parameters["Wi"]
    bi = parameters["bi"]
    Wc = parameters["Wc"]
    bc = parameters["bc"]
    Wo = parameters["Wo"]
    bo = parameters["bo"]
    Wy = parameters["Wy"]
    by = parameters["by"]
    
    # Retrieve dimensions from shapes of xt and Wy
    n_x, m = xt.shape
    n_y, n_a = Wy.shape

    ### START CODE HERE ###
    # Concatenate a_prev and xt (≈3 lines)
    concat = np.zeros(((n_x + n_a), m))
    concat[: n_a, :] = a_prev
    concat[n_a :, :] = xt

    # Compute values for ft, it, cct, c_next, ot, a_next using the formulas given figure (4) (≈6 lines)
    ft = sigmoid(np.dot(Wf,concat) + bf)
    it = sigmoid(np.dot(Wi,concat) + bi)
    cct = np.tanh(np.dot(Wc,concat) + bc)
    c_next = it * cct + ft * c_prev
    ot = sigmoid(np.dot(Wo,concat) + bo)
    a_next = ot * np.tanh(c_next)
    
    # Compute prediction of the LSTM cell (≈1 line)
    yt_pred = softmax(np.dot(Wy,a_next) + by)
    ### END CODE HERE ###

    # store values needed for backward propagation in cache
    cache = (a_next, c_next, a_prev, c_prev, ft, it, cct, ot, xt, parameters)

    return a_next, c_next, yt_pred, cache



# GRADED FUNCTION: lstm_forward

def lstm_forward(x, a0, parameters):
    """
    Implement the forward propagation of the recurrent neural network using an LSTM-cell described in Figure (3).

    Arguments:
    x -- Input data for every time-step, of shape (n_x, m, T_x).
    a0 -- Initial hidden state, of shape (n_a, m)
    parameters -- python dictionary containing:
                        Wf -- Weight matrix of the forget gate, numpy array of shape (n_a, n_a + n_x)
                        bf -- Bias of the forget gate, numpy array of shape (n_a, 1)
                        Wi -- Weight matrix of the update gate, numpy array of shape (n_a, n_a + n_x)
                        bi -- Bias of the update gate, numpy array of shape (n_a, 1)
                        Wc -- Weight matrix of the first "tanh", numpy array of shape (n_a, n_a + n_x)
                        bc -- Bias of the first "tanh", numpy array of shape (n_a, 1)
                        Wo -- Weight matrix of the output gate, numpy array of shape (n_a, n_a + n_x)
                        bo -- Bias of the output gate, numpy array of shape (n_a, 1)
                        Wy -- Weight matrix relating the hidden-state to the output, numpy array of shape (n_y, n_a)
                        by -- Bias relating the hidden-state to the output, numpy array of shape (n_y, 1)
                        
    Returns:
    a -- Hidden states for every time-step, numpy array of shape (n_a, m, T_x)
    y -- Predictions for every time-step, numpy array of shape (n_y, m, T_x)
    caches -- tuple of values needed for the backward pass, contains (list of all the caches, x)
    """

    # Initialize "caches", which will track the list of all the caches
    caches = []
    
    ### START CODE HERE ###
    # Retrieve dimensions from shapes of x and parameters['Wy'] (≈2 lines)
    n_x, m, T_x = x.shape
    n_y, n_a = parameters['Wy'].shape
    
    # initialize "a", "c" and "y" with zeros (≈3 lines)
    a = np.zeros((n_a,m,T_x))
    c = np.zeros((n_a,m,T_x))
    y = np.zeros((n_y,m,T_x))
    
    # Initialize a_next and c_next (≈2 lines)
    a_next = a0
    c_next = np.zeros((n_a,m))
    
    # loop over all time-steps
    for t in range(T_x):
        # Update next hidden state, next memory state, compute the prediction, get the cache (≈1 line)
        a_next, c_next, yt, cache = lstm_cell_forward(x[:,:,t],a_next,c_next,parameters)
        # Save the value of the new "next" hidden state in a (≈1 line)
        a[:,:,t] = a_next
        # Save the value of the prediction in y (≈1 line)
        y[:,:,t] = yt
        # Save the value of the next cell state (≈1 line)
        c[:,:,t]  = c_next
        # Append the cache into caches (≈1 line)
        caches.append(cache)
        
    ### END CODE HERE ###
    
    # store values needed for backward propagation in cache
    caches = (caches, x)

    return a, y, c, caches

def rnn_cell_backward(da_next, cache):
    """
    Implements the backward pass for the RNN-cell (single time-step).

    Arguments:
    da_next -- Gradient of loss with respect to next hidden state
    cache -- python dictionary containing useful values (output of rnn_cell_forward())

    Returns:
    gradients -- python dictionary containing:
                        dx -- Gradients of input data, of shape (n_x, m)
                        da_prev -- Gradients of previous hidden state, of shape (n_a, m)
                        dWax -- Gradients of input-to-hidden weights, of shape (n_a, n_x)
                        dWaa -- Gradients of hidden-to-hidden weights, of shape (n_a, n_a)
                        dba -- Gradients of bias vector, of shape (n_a, 1)
    """
    
    # Retrieve values from cache
    (a_next, a_prev, xt, parameters) = cache
    
    # Retrieve values from parameters
    Wax = parameters["Wax"]
    Waa = parameters["Waa"]
    Wya = parameters["Wya"]
    ba = parameters["ba"]
    by = parameters["by"]

    ### START CODE HERE ###
    # compute the gradient of tanh with respect to a_next (≈1 line)
    dtanh = (1 - np.square(a_next)) * da_next
    # compute the gradient of the loss with respect to Wax (≈2 lines)
    dxt = np.dot(Wax.T,dtanh)
    dWax = np.dot(dtanh,xt.T)

    # compute the gradient with respect to Waa (≈2 lines)
    da_prev = np.dot(Waa.T,dtanh)
    dWaa = np.dot(dtanh,a_prev.T)

    # compute the gradient with respect to b (≈1 line)
    dba = np.sum(dtanh,axis=1,keepdims=True)

    ### END CODE HERE ###
    
    # Store the gradients in a python dictionary
    gradients = {"dxt": dxt, "da_prev": da_prev, "dWax": dWax, "dWaa": dWaa, "dba": dba}
    
    return gradients




def rnn_backward(da, caches):
    """
    Implement the backward pass for a RNN over an entire sequence of input data.

    Arguments:
    da -- Upstream gradients of all hidden states, of shape (n_a, m, T_x)
    caches -- tuple containing information from the forward pass (rnn_forward)
    
    Returns:
    gradients -- python dictionary containing:
                        dx -- Gradient w.r.t. the input data, numpy-array of shape (n_x, m, T_x)
                        da0 -- Gradient w.r.t the initial hidden state, numpy-array of shape (n_a, m)
                        dWax -- Gradient w.r.t the input's weight matrix, numpy-array of shape (n_a, n_x)
                        dWaa -- Gradient w.r.t the hidden state's weight matrix, numpy-arrayof shape (n_a, n_a)
                        dba -- Gradient w.r.t the bias, of shape (n_a, 1)
    """
        
    ### START CODE HERE ###
    
    # Retrieve values from the first cache (t=1) of caches (≈2 lines)
    (cache, x) = caches
    (a1, a0, x1, parameters) = cache[0]
    
    # Retrieve dimensions from da's and x1's shapes (≈2 lines)
    n_a, m, T_x = da.shape
    n_x, m = x1.shape
    
    # initialize the gradients with the right sizes (≈6 lines)
    dx = np.zeros((n_x,m,T_x))
    dWax = np.zeros((n_a,n_x))
    dWaa = np.zeros((n_a,n_a))
    dba = np.zeros((n_a,1))
    da0 = np.zeros((n_a,m))
    da_prevt = np.zeros((n_a,m))
    
    # Loop through all the time steps
    for t in reversed(range(T_x)):
        # Compute gradients at time step t. Choose wisely the "da_next" and the "cache" to use in the backward propagation step. (≈1 line)
        gradients = rnn_cell_backward(da[:,:,t] + da_prevt,cache[t])
        # Retrieve derivatives from gradients (≈ 1 line)
        dxt, da_prevt, dWaxt, dWaat, dbat = gradients["dxt"], gradients["da_prev"], gradients["dWax"], gradients["dWaa"], gradients["dba"]
        # Increment global derivatives w.r.t parameters by adding their derivative at time-step t (≈4 lines)
        dx[:, :, t] = dxt
        dWax += dWaxt
        dWaa += dWaat
        dba += dbat
        
    # Set da0 to the gradient of a which has been backpropagated through all time-steps (≈1 line) 
    da0 = da_prevt
    ### END CODE HERE ###

    # Store the gradients in a python dictionary
    gradients = {"dx": dx, "da0": da0, "dWax": dWax, "dWaa": dWaa,"dba": dba}
    
    return gradients




def lstm_cell_backward(da_next, dc_next, cache):
    """
    Implement the backward pass for the LSTM-cell (single time-step).

    Arguments:
    da_next -- Gradients of next hidden state, of shape (n_a, m)
    dc_next -- Gradients of next cell state, of shape (n_a, m)
    cache -- cache storing information from the forward pass

    Returns:
    gradients -- python dictionary containing:
                        dxt -- Gradient of input data at time-step t, of shape (n_x, m)
                        da_prev -- Gradient w.r.t. the previous hidden state, numpy array of shape (n_a, m)
                        dc_prev -- Gradient w.r.t. the previous memory state, of shape (n_a, m, T_x)
                        dWf -- Gradient w.r.t. the weight matrix of the forget gate, numpy array of shape (n_a, n_a + n_x)
                        dWi -- Gradient w.r.t. the weight matrix of the update gate, numpy array of shape (n_a, n_a + n_x)
                        dWc -- Gradient w.r.t. the weight matrix of the memory gate, numpy array of shape (n_a, n_a + n_x)
                        dWo -- Gradient w.r.t. the weight matrix of the output gate, numpy array of shape (n_a, n_a + n_x)
                        dbf -- Gradient w.r.t. biases of the forget gate, of shape (n_a, 1)
                        dbi -- Gradient w.r.t. biases of the update gate, of shape (n_a, 1)
                        dbc -- Gradient w.r.t. biases of the memory gate, of shape (n_a, 1)
                        dbo -- Gradient w.r.t. biases of the output gate, of shape (n_a, 1)
    """

    # Retrieve information from "cache"
    (a_next, c_next, a_prev, c_prev, ft, it, cct, ot, xt, parameters) = cache
    
    ### START CODE HERE ###
    # Retrieve dimensions from xt's and a_next's shape (≈2 lines)
    n_x, m = xt.shape
    n_a, m = a_next.shape
    
    # Compute gates related derivatives, you can find their values can be found by looking carefully at equations (7) to (10) (≈4 lines)
    dot = da_next * np.tanh(c_next) * ot * (1 - ot)
    dcct = (dc_next * it + ot * (1 - np.square(np.tanh(c_next))) * it * da_next) * (1 - np.square(cct))
    dit = (dc_next * cct + ot * (1 - np.square(np.tanh(c_next))) * cct * da_next) * it * (1 - it)
    dft = (dc_next * c_prev + ot * (1 - np.square(np.tanh(c_next))) * c_prev * da_next) * ft * (1 - ft)
    
    
    # Code equations (7) to (10) (≈4 lines)
    # dit = None
    # dft = None
    # dot = None
    # dcct = None

    # Compute parameters related derivatives. Use equations (11)-(14) (≈8 lines)
    concat = np.concatenate((a_prev, xt), axis=0).T
    dWf = np.dot(dft, concat)
    dWi = np.dot(dit, concat)
    dWc = np.dot(dcct, concat)
    dWo = np.dot(dot, concat)
    dbf = np.sum(dft, axis=1, keepdims=True)
    dbi = np.sum(dit, axis=1, keepdims=True)
    dbc = np.sum(dcct, axis=1, keepdims=True)
    dbo = np.sum(dot, axis=1, keepdims=True)

    # Compute derivatives w.r.t previous hidden state, previous memory state and input. Use equations (15)-(17). (≈3 lines)
    da_prev = np.dot(parameters['Wf'][:, :n_a].T, dft) + np.dot(parameters['Wc'][:, :n_a].T,dcct) +np.dot(parameters['Wi'][:, :n_a].T,dit)+np.dot\
        (parameters['Wo'][:, :n_a].T,dot)
    dc_prev = dc_next * ft + ot * (1 - np.square(np.tanh(c_next))) * ft * da_next
    dxt = np.dot(parameters['Wf'][:, n_a:].T,dft) + np.dot(parameters['Wc'][:, n_a:].T,dcct) + np.dot(parameters['Wi'][:, n_a:].T,dit) + \
          np.dot(parameters['Wo'][:, n_a:].T,dot)
    ### END CODE HERE ###
    
    # Save gradients in dictionary
    gradients = {"dxt": dxt, "da_prev": da_prev, "dc_prev": dc_prev, "dWf": dWf,"dbf": dbf, "dWi": dWi,"dbi": dbi,
                "dWc": dWc,"dbc": dbc, "dWo": dWo,"dbo": dbo}

    return gradients



def lstm_backward(da, caches):
    
    """
    Implement the backward pass for the RNN with LSTM-cell (over a whole sequence).

    Arguments:
    da -- Gradients w.r.t the hidden states, numpy-array of shape (n_a, m, T_x)
    dc -- Gradients w.r.t the memory states, numpy-array of shape (n_a, m, T_x)
    caches -- cache storing information from the forward pass (lstm_forward)

    Returns:
    gradients -- python dictionary containing:
                        dx -- Gradient of inputs, of shape (n_x, m, T_x)
                        da0 -- Gradient w.r.t. the previous hidden state, numpy array of shape (n_a, m)
                        dWf -- Gradient w.r.t. the weight matrix of the forget gate, numpy array of shape (n_a, n_a + n_x)
                        dWi -- Gradient w.r.t. the weight matrix of the update gate, numpy array of shape (n_a, n_a + n_x)
                        dWc -- Gradient w.r.t. the weight matrix of the memory gate, numpy array of shape (n_a, n_a + n_x)
                        dWo -- Gradient w.r.t. the weight matrix of the save gate, numpy array of shape (n_a, n_a + n_x)
                        dbf -- Gradient w.r.t. biases of the forget gate, of shape (n_a, 1)
                        dbi -- Gradient w.r.t. biases of the update gate, of shape (n_a, 1)
                        dbc -- Gradient w.r.t. biases of the memory gate, of shape (n_a, 1)
                        dbo -- Gradient w.r.t. biases of the save gate, of shape (n_a, 1)
    """

    # Retrieve values from the first cache (t=1) of caches.
    (caches, x) = caches
    (a1, c1, a0, c0, f1, i1, cc1, o1, x1, parameters) = caches[0]
    
    ### START CODE HERE ###
    # Retrieve dimensions from da's and x1's shapes (≈2 lines)
    n_a, m, T_x = da.shape
    n_x, m = x1.shape
    
    # initialize the gradients with the right sizes (≈12 lines)
    dx = np.zeros([n_x, m, T_x])
    da0 = np.zeros([n_a, m])
    da_prevt = np.zeros([n_a, m])
    dc_prevt = np.zeros([n_a, m])
    dWf = np.zeros([n_a, n_a + n_x])
    dWi = np.zeros([n_a, n_a + n_x])
    dWc = np.zeros([n_a, n_a + n_x])
    dWo = np.zeros([n_a, n_a + n_x])
    dbf = np.zeros([n_a, 1])
    dbi = np.zeros([n_a, 1])
    dbc = np.zeros([n_a, 1])
    dbo = np.zeros([n_a, 1])

    
    # loop back over the whole sequence
    for t in reversed(range(T_x)):
        # Compute all gradients using lstm_cell_backward
        gradients = lstm_cell_backward(da[:,:,t],dc_prevt,caches[t])
        # Store or add the gradient to the parameters' previous step's gradient
        dx[:,:,t] = gradients['dxt']
        dWf = dWf+gradients['dWf']
        dWi = dWi+gradients['dWi']
        dWc = dWc+gradients['dWc']
        dWo = dWo+gradients['dWo']
        dbf = dbf+gradients['dbf']
        dbi = dbi+gradients['dbi']
        dbc = dbc+gradients['dbc']
        dbo = dbo+gradients['dbo']

    # Set the first activation's gradient to the backpropagated gradient da_prev.
    da0 = gradients['da_prev']
    
    ### END CODE HERE ###

    # Store the gradients in a python dictionary
    gradients = {"dx": dx, "da0": da0, "dWf": dWf,"dbf": dbf, "dWi": dWi,"dbi": dbi,
                "dWc": dWc,"dbc": dbc, "dWo": dWo,"dbo": dbo}
    
    return gradients

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