MPP, SMP, NUMA concept introduction

1.1,        MPP architecture introduction

MPP (Massively Parallel Processing) , massively parallel processing system, such a system is composed of many loosely coupled processing units, it should be noted that the processing unit is referred to here instead of the processor. The CPU in each unit has its own private resources, such as bus, memory, hard disk, etc. Within each cell there is an instance replica of the operating system and management database . The biggest feature of this structure is that it does not share resources.


MPP, SMP, NUMA concept introduction





1.2,     SMP architecture introduction


SMP (Symmetric Multi Processing), there are many tightly coupled multi-processors in a symmetric multi-processing system. In such a system, all CPUs share all resources, such as bus, memory and I/O system, etc., operating system or management database There is only one replica, and one of the biggest features of this system is that all resources are shared .



MPP, SMP, NUMA concept introduction 


1.3,     NUMA architecture

The basic feature of a NUMA server is that it has multiple CPU modules, and each CPU module consists of multiple CPUs ( eg , 4 ) , and has independent local memory, I/O slots, and the like. Because its nodes can be connected and information exchanged through interconnection modules ( such as Crossbar Switch) .



 MPP, SMP, NUMA concept introduction




Second, the differences between the three architectures


2.1 The difference in performance between NUMA , MPP , and SMP


The node interconnection mechanism of NUMA is implemented within the same physical server. When a certain CPU needs to perform remote memory access, it must wait. This is also the reason why NUMA servers cannot achieve linear performance expansion when the CPU increases.


The node interconnection mechanism of MPP is realized through I/O outside different SMP servers . Each node only accesses local memory and storage, and the information exchange between nodes is carried out in parallel with the processing of the nodes themselves. Therefore , the performance of MPP can basically achieve linear expansion when adding nodes.























From the perspective of NUMA architecture, it can integrate many CPUs in a physical server , so that the system has high transaction processing capability. Since the remote memory access delay is much longer than the local memory access, it is necessary to minimize the data between different CPU modules. interact. Obviously, the NUMA architecture is more suitable for the OLTP transaction processing environment. When used in the data warehouse environment, due to a large number of complex data processing will inevitably lead to a large number of data interactions, which will greatly reduce the CPU utilization.

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