[官网]How to configure the Microsoft Distributed Transaction Coordinator (MSDTC) on Linux

How to configure the Microsoft Distributed Transaction Coordinator (MSDTC) on Linux

APPLIES TO: yesSQL Server (Linux only) noAzure SQL Database noAzure SQL Data Warehouse noParallel Data Warehouse

This article describes how to configure the Microsoft Distributed Transaction Coordinator (MSTDC) on Linux. MSDTC support on Linux was introduced in SQL Server 2019 preview.

Overview

https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sql/linux/sql-server-linux-configure-msdtc?view=sqlallproducts-allversions

sqlserver 2017 不支持该命令 

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Distributed transactions are enabled on SQL Server on Linux by introducing MSDTC and RPC endpoint mapper functionality within SQL Server. By default, an RPC endpoint-mapping process listens on port 135 for incoming RPC requests and routes that to appropriate components (such as the MSDTC service). A process requires super user privilege to bind to well-known ports (port numbers less than 1024) on Linux. To avoid starting SQL Server with root privileges for the RPC endpoint mapper process, system administrators must use iptables to create NAT translation to route traffic on port 135 to SQL Server's RPC endpoint-mapping process.

SQL Server 2019 introduces two configuration parameters for the mssql-conf utility.

mssql-conf setting Description
network.rpcport The TCP port that the RPC endpoint mapper process binds to.
network.servertcpport The port that the MSDTC server listens to. If not set, the MSDTC service uses a random ephemeral port on service restarts, and firewall exceptions will need to be re-configured to ensure that MSDTC service can continue communication.

For more information about these settings and other related MSDTC settings, see Configure SQL Server on Linux with the mssql-conf tool.

Supported MSDTC configurations

The following MSDTC configurations are supported:

  • OLE-TX Distributed transactions against SQL Server on Linux for JDBC and ODBC providers.
  • XA Distributed transactions against SQL Server on Linux using JDBC providers.
  • Distributed transactions on Linked server.

For limitations and known issues for MSDTC in preview, see Release notes for SQL Server 2019 preview on Linux.

MSDTC configuration steps

There are three steps to configure MSDTC communication and functionality. If the necessary configuration steps are not done, SQL Server will not enable MSDTC functionality.

  • Configure network.rpcport and distributedtransaction.servertcpport using mssql-conf.
  • Configure the firewall to allow communication on rpcport, servertcpport, and port 135.
  • Configure Linux server routing so that RPC communication on port 135 is redirected to SQL Server's network.rpcport.

The following sections provide detailed instructions for each step.

Configure RPC and MSDTC ports

First, configure network.rpcport and distributedtransaction.servertcpport using mssql-conf.

  1. Use mssql-conf to set the network.rpcport value. The following example sets it to 13500.

    bash
    sudo /opt/mssql/bin/mssql-conf set network.rpcport 13500
    
  2. Set the distributedtransaction.servertcpport value. The following example sets it to 51999.

    bash
    sudo /opt/mssql/bin/mssql-conf set distributedtransaction.servertcpport 51999
    
  3. Restart SQL Server.

    bash
    sudo systemctl restart mssql-server
    

Configure the firewall

The final step is to configure the firewall to allow communication on rpcport, servertcpport, and port 135. This enables the RPC endpoint-mapping process and MSDTC process to communicate externally to other transaction managers and coordinators. The actual steps for this will vary depending on your Linux distribution and firewall.

The following example shows how to create these rules on Ubuntu.

bash
sudo ufw allow from any to any port 51999 proto tcp
sudo ufw allow from any to any port 135 proto tcp

The following example shows how this could be done on Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL):

bash
sudo firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-port=51999/tcp --permanent
sudo firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-port=135/tcp --permanent
sudo firewall-cmd --reload

It is important to configure the firewall before configuring port routing in the next section. Refreshing the firewall can clear the port routing rules in some cases.

Configure port routing

Configure the Linux server routing table so that RPC communication on port 135 is redirected to SQL Server's network.rpcport. Configuration mechanism for port forwarding on different distribution may differ. On distributions which do not use firewalld service, iptable rules are an efficient mechanism to achieve this. Example of such distrubution are Ubuntu 16.04 and SUSE Enterprise Linux v12. The iptable rules may not persist during reboots, so the following commands also provide instructions for restoring the rules after a reboot.

  1. Create routing rules for port 135. In the following example, port 135 is directed to the RPC port, 13500, defined in the previous section. Replace <ipaddress> with the IP address of your server.

    bash
    iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -d <ip> -p tcp --dport 135 -m addrtype --dst-type LOCAL  \
       -j DNAT --to-destination <ip>:13500 -m comment --comment RpcEndPointMapper
    iptables -t nat -A OUTPUT -d <ip> -p tcp --dport 135 -m addrtype --dst-type LOCAL \
       -j DNAT --to-destination <ip>:13500 -m comment --comment RpcEndPointMapper
    

    The --comment RpcEndPointMapper parameter in the previous commands assists with managing these rules in later commands.

  2. View the routing rules you created with the following command:

    bash
    iptables -S -t nat | grep "RpcEndPointMapper"
    
  3. Save the routing rules to a file on your machine.

    bash
    iptables-save > /etc/iptables.conf
    
  4. To reload the rules after a reboot, add the following command to /etc/rc.local (for Ubuntu or RHEL) or to /etc/init.d/after.local (for SLES):

    bash
    iptables-restore < /etc/iptables.conf
    

The iptables-save and iptables-restore commands provide a basic mechanism to save and restore iptables entries. Depending on your Linux distribution, there might be more advanced or automated options available. For example, an Ubuntu alternative is the iptables-persistent package to make entries persistent.

On distributions which use firewalld service, the same service can be used for both opening the port on the server and internal port forwarding. For example, on Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you should use firewalld service (via firewall-cmd configuration utility with -add-forward-port or similar options) to create and manage persistent port forwarding rules instead of using iptables.

bash
firewall-cmd --permanent --add-forward-port=port=135:proto=tcp:toport=13500

 Important

The previous steps assume a fixed IP address. If the IP address for your SQL Server instance changes (due to manual intervention or DHCP), you must remove and recreate the routing rules if they were created with iptables. If you need to recreate or delete existing routing rules, you can use the following command to remove old RpcEndPointMapper rules:

bash
iptables -S -t nat | grep "RpcEndPointMapper" | sed 's/^-A //' | while read rule; do iptables -t nat -D $rule; done 

Verify

At this point, SQL Server should be able to participate in distributed transactions. To verify that SQL Server is listening, run the netstatcommand (if you are using RHEL, you might have to first install the net-tools package):

bash
sudo netstat -tulpn | grep sqlservr

You should see output similar to the following:

bash
tcp 0 0 0.0.0.0:1433 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN 13911/sqlservr
tcp 0 0 127.0.0.1:1434 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN 13911/sqlservr
tcp 0 0 0.0.0.0:13500 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN 13911/sqlservr
tcp 0 0 0.0.0.0:51999 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN 13911/sqlservr
tcp6 0 0 :::1433 :::* LISTEN 13911/sqlservr
tcp6 0 0 ::1:1434 :::* LISTEN 13911/sqlservr
tcp6 0 0 :::13500 :::* LISTEN 13911/sqlservr
tcp6 0 0 :::51999 :::* LISTEN 13911/sqlservr

However, after a restart, SQL Server does not start listening on the servertcpport until the first distributed transaction. In this case, you would not see SQL Server listening on port 51999 in this example until the first distributed transaction.

Next steps

For more information about SQL Server on Linux, see SQL Server on Linux.

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转载自www.cnblogs.com/jinanxiaolaohu/p/10520909.html
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